How is it produced?
Although hydrogen is plentiful it is rarely or reliably found in its pure form, unlike oil and gas. It is usually bound up with other elements and has to be extracted using chemical reactions.
Today, most hydrogen is produced by heating up and splitting methane into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, which is then released into the atmosphere.
This is widely referred to as ‘grey’ hydrogen and is used mostly in oil refining and for the production of ammonia, an ingredient needed to make fertilisers.
However, there are also ways to produce zero or low-carbon hydrogen.
One is ‘green’ hydrogen, which produced from the electrolysis of water powered by renewable energy.
The other is ‘blue’ hydrogen, where the emissions generated from splitting methane are captured and prevented from entering the atmosphere.